The Federal Republic of Brazil is the largest country in South America. It occupies about half of the South American territory. Brazil has borders with all the countries of South America, except Chile. To the north Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana and the Atlantic Ocean ; to the south Uruguay ; to the west Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia and Peru and to the northeast Colombia.
The Brazilian territory is crossed by two very important geographical lines: Ecuador that passes through the mouth of the Amazon and the Tropic of Capricorn that crosses the city of Sao Paulo. Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world, after Russia, Canada, China and the United States, as well as being the third largest in the Americas, with a total area of 8,514,876,599 km². 
The Brazilian topography is also very diverse, and includes several hills, mountains, plains, plateaus, and hills. Much of the terrain is located at an altitude of between 200 to 800 meters above sea level. Most of the highlands are located mainly in the southern part of the country. One of the characteristics that distinguish Brazil is the existence on its territory of the Brazilian plateau and the jungle of the Amazon. The plateau occupies more than half of the southern territory of the country. The most important areas of the plateau are the Sierra da Mantiqueira, the Sierra de Mar and the Sierra Geral. The most significant heights are those of Pico da Bandeira with 2890 meters, and Pedra Açu with 2232 meters high. The Amazon rainforest occupies more than a third of the country. The Brazilian coast has singularly regular contours, although it has some excellent bays.
According to Bridgat, the climatic conditions of Brazil correspond to a temperate subtropical climate. According to the Köppen system, Brazil has six main climatic subtypes: equatorial, tropical, semi-arid, high-altitude tropical, temperate and subtropical. The different climatic conditions produce environments that vary from the tropical forest in the north and the semi-arid regions of the northeast, to the temperate coniferous forest in the south and the tropical savannas in the center. 
The average temperature is 25 ° C.  The climate varies according to the altitude and latitude of the area: From the aridity of the interior, to the tropical climate of the Amazon and the regions of the eastern coast. In general, it can be said that it is predominantly tropical. It is a humid country, with a changing climate, especially in the south. The rainy season depends on the region: from January to April in the north; from April to July in the northeast; and from November to March in the regions of Rio and São Paulo. The South Region is the only Brazilian region located almost entirely below the Tropic of Capricorn and, for that reason, it is the coldest in Brazil. The dominant climate is subtropical and temperate where frosts are frequent. The seasons of the year are well defined and the rains, in general, occur with great frequency in the year. The seasons in Brazil are opposite to those of Europe, Asia and North America because they are south of the Equator, except in the northern region. Winter runs from June to August, summer lasts from December to February.
Although only 7% of the total area is cultivated, Brazil bases its resources on agriculture. Among the mineral resources that can be found in its territory are quartz, diamond, chromium, graphite, titanium, copper, gold, bauxite, zinc and mercuryamong others.
Flora and fauna
Vegetation in Brazil is very diverse, particularly in the Amazon. Hundreds of plant species, including begonias, laurels, and Acacia Amarilla among others, abound in this region. Palms and timber and fruit trees also grow in that area. The vegetation in the river valleys is also very extensive. Cacti and other plants common to those territories can be found in the most arid areas.
Animal life is also extremely varied, fauna includes pumas, jaguars, ocelots, foxes, armadillos, monkeys among others. Many varieties of birds are indigenous to Brazil and the reptile fauna includes many species of snakes and boas. Different varieties of fish and turtles abound in the rivers, lakes and maritime coasts of Brazil. Brazil’s natural heritage is seriously threatened by cattle ranching, agriculture, logging, mining, resettlement, oil and natural gas extraction., overfishing, wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure, water pollution, climate change, fire and invasive species.